Health & Sport Sciences, 2013
  • Prevalence, Mechanism, and Prevention of Impingement Syndrome in Male, High School Volleyball Players
    Josh Gruenbaum
    Mentor: Laura Boucher


    Shoulder pain has been shown to affect upwards of 40% of volleyball players and has the longest return to play time (6.2 weeks) when compared to other common injuries. The purpose of this literature review was to determine the underlying cause of shoulder injuries in male high school volleyball players. The study was also done to determine the best methods of shoulder injury prevention. A literature review was conducted focusing on shoulder injury mechanism and prevention in volleyball. The most common injury suffered in male high school volleyball players is impingement syndrome. Research shows this injury is caused by overuse and rotator cuff muscle imbalance. Keys to prevention begin with the warm-up and include off-speed hits with a gradually increasing speed of the hit. Research also suggests limiting hitting and serving repetitions in practices can help prevent overuse. Another key to prevention is to participate in shoulder strengthening in the off-season. The findings from this study can be utilized by the coaching, athletic training, and biomechanic communities to help prevent shoulder injuries in volleyball players by using a proactive way to prevent injury.

    Aquatic Rehabilitation in the Treatment of Athletic Injuries
    Kelsey Kaiser
    Mentor: Bonnie Goodwin


    Various treatment and rehabilitation techniques are used in the management of injuries, and old techniques are constantly resurfacing and regaining popularity. Aquatic therapy as it is known today has been used for almost a century, and the potential healing effects of water have been explored intensively, but an important question remains. Despite the fact that water has well documented healing properties, are these theories clinically relevant? Can these theories carry over into real life situations that can aid in the recovery and rehabilitation process, or is it a waste of time and energy for the clinician and patient to get access to an aquatic rehabilitation center? The purpose of this literature review is to explore the principles of water and its interaction with the body, and more importantly, if these principles have a significant impact on rehabilitation outcomes. The findings show that although there have been positive outcomes in the utilization of aquatic rehabilitation in the elderly, few studies have been conducted involving the athletic population.

    Surgical Techniques for Knee Cartilage Defects
    Megan Mahoney
    Mentor: Bonnie Goodwin


    Knee cartilage defects can occur due to an acute injury (e.g., a shearing or axial load) or due to age. Cartilage defects are more common among young athletes and can be treated surgically or non-surgically. If the injury is left un-treated, a degenerative disease, such as osteoarthritis, can occur. Surgery may be required because the cartilage is incapable of healing spontaneously, which can cause further issues for the patient. The primary purpose of this literature review was to examine different surgical techniques for knee cartilage defects. After reviewing literature, the most common types of surgery performed are arthroscopic chondroplasty, microfracture, osteochondral allografts, and autologous chondrocyte implantation. Factors that can affect which surgery is performed include the size of the defect and the age of the patient due to evidence that indicates patients over the age of 40 experience poor results. The importance of this study is to educate those in the health field, especially athletic trainers, on various techniques used for treating a knee cartilage defect.

    The Effect of NSAIDs on the Healing Process of Stress Fractures
    Ryan Neuberger
    Mentor: Bonnie Goodwin


    The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatroy drugs (NSAIDs) is widely used throughout the world to treat an array of musculoskeletal injuries and general pain. The goal of this review of literature is to provide information to the general population, and specifically athletes, regarding the effects that NSAIDs have on the healing process of stress fractures (SFxs). NSAIDs inhibit normal body processes that enable the body, in this case bone, to heal properly, effectively, and timely. This research will develop those processes and make people of aware the potential negative effect that NSAIDs may cause to a healing SFx. It will also compare and comibine the numerous animal (rat) studies that have previously been performed and present findings in an organized manner that is easier for the common individual to understand.

    Cam Type Deformity in Soccer Players
    Jesse Porter
    Mentor: Bonnie Goodwin


    This study’s purpose is to look at the diagnosis of cam-type deformity in the hip as well as to compare different surgical techniques as well as non-surgical treatment of the injury. The study will determine, through a literature review, what techniques are most common, and which techniques require the least rehabilitation time so the athlete can return to play. The reviewed articles show a higher prevalence of cam-type deformity in men than in women, and in the athletic population over the general population. Conservative treatment is shown to be less effective than surgery in terms of how long it takes to recover.

    Comparison of a Surgical Approach to a Conservative Approach of a Scaphoid Fracture
    Wesley Slack
    Mentor: Bonnie Goodwin


    This research will explore the comparisons of a surgical approach and a conservative approach to a scaphoid fracture repair in the wrist. This research will focus mainly on the benefits, costs, and healing time of the different styles of rehabilitation as found by studies conducted in recent years. Studies have differed and shown mixed results regarding this type of research, but as technology advances and surgical procedures become more precise, will the surgical approach become more beneficial and cost effective? Analyzing all elements of each approach while keeping in mind rehabilitation protocols and minimizing return to work/play time is critical in this study. The goal of this research is to serve the community by allowing them the best way to minimize their return to work/play.

    Surgical Techniques of Articular Cartilage Repair and the Predisposition to Osteoarthritis
    Macy Weber
    Mentor: Bonnie M. Goodwin


    Articular cartilage is at a high risk for damage, and has a narrow capacity for repair. Damage to this area can be from traumatic sports injuries or wear and tear over time. This cartilage is characterized as specialized tissue with a shock absorbing function, and enables synovial joints to articulate with frictional forces. Injuries to your articular cartilage can lead to osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is pain within the joint due to the degeneration of articular cartilage. This literature review will introduce several surgical procedures used to repair articular cartilage injuries. Surgical techniques will be compared with other articular cartilage repair techniques. The main idea will focus primarily on the surgical technique of autologous chondrocyte implantation, and the relevance to athletes being predisposed to a higher risk of osteoarthritis. Athletes require a strong and healthy articulating cartilage surface to withstand the variety of forces that they are presented with through intense physical activity. An overview of the procedure will be presented along with indications, contradictions, rehabilitation protocol, and potential setbacks.