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Acute myocardial infarction (MI), or heart attack, is a condition that occurs when blood flow and oxygenation to the heart is interrupted. This interruption can lead to significant damage and ultimately death if left untreated. Over one million individuals suffer from MI each year, many of which are unrecognized and untreated due to the presence of atypical or silent symptoms. Women are more likely to exhibit atypical symptoms than men, thus they are also at an increased risk for death. The literature indicates that there is a significant lack of knowledge and understanding about atypical symptom recognition and initial treatment of acute MI by the lay population. Therefore, it is imperative to inform the public, women in particular, about the signs and symptoms of impending MI, particularly atypical or silent symptoms. The purpose of this poster is to describe MI symptom recognition, including atypical or silent symptoms, and emergency home management of acute MI prior to arrival of the emergency medical system (EMS).
The purpose of this poster presentation is to determine ways to improve the communication skills of children with autism spectrum disorders. It is important for research to be conducted about this topic and applied in the clinical setting and in the home environments of these children. It is extremely important that children with autism can communicate their needs and desires to others. The literature that was reviewed covers topics such as measuring communication skills on a standardize scale, improving them by using picture symbols or through therapy, and how siblings of children with autism are affected. This research should be used to increase the communication skills in children with autism. Nurses need to be aware of the latest research concerning this topic and be able to apply the research to the clinical setting. This work increases our understanding of the need for improved communication skills in these children and ways in which those communication skills can be improved.
This poster addresses the assessment tools and comfort care measures that can be implemented by the nurse during the dying process. This topic includes both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures and serves to educate the nurse on the available and successful options. The poster discusses the information that is provided to the family during the process as well as information on advanced directives and the nurse’s role in education on them to the family. The poster educates the nurse about how to interact with the multidisciplinary team and use the options available to ensure proper palliative care for the patient.
The global fight against cancer is one that researchers and clinicians have battled for years. New approaches to fighting cancer and improving prognosis are constantly being discovered. Many clinicians and cancer patients have begun to consider alternative approaches and treatments for both palliative and survival purposes. New therapies include massage therapy, acupuncture, art therapy and herbal remedies. These treatments are becoming more widely accepted and adopted. Conventional therapies include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. Additional treatments are used to counter the side effects. While these methods can be effective when used in isolation, studies show that their effectiveness increases when applied in combination with newly emerging alternative and complementary therapies. This project evaluates these alternative practices and examines their effectiveness in cancer treatment as compared to the treatment of cancer under conventional therapies.
Critically ill patients rapidly become catabolic due to the stress response. Over time, this programmed response can lead to a severe reduction in lean body mass, which is associated with negative outcomes. Therefore, provision of the right nutrition formula at the right time is an essential part of patient care. Research provides evidence that undernourishment as the result of hypo-caloric feeding is detrimental to the critically ill patient. Negative outcomes include increased infectious morbidity, prolonged hospital stay, and increased mortality. Registered nurses working in critical care units need to be advocates for proper nutrition at the proper time. As the 24 hour caregiver, the nurse is optimally positioned to make nutritional recommendations. Nutrition should be started within 48 to 96 hours, and the adequate calories and protein based upon the metabolic rate should be provided.
Kangaroo care is a recent intervention introduced in the 1980s and has benefits to the infant and the parents. Kangaroo care promotes intense connectedness, decrease anxiety in the infant, and active parenting. Kangaroo care also acts as an analgesic for the infant and positively affects breastfeeding. The purpose of this poster presentation is to examine the effects of mother-infant touch or kangaroo care on parents and their newborns and make best nursing practice recommendations regarding kangaroo care in the clinical setting. Findings include how the attitudes of nurses and parents regarding the effectiveness of kangaroo care can affect neonates. Promoting mother and infant attachment and infant growth while in the neonatal intensive care unit is crucial to the infant’s survival. Nurses can learn to implement different strategies to help initiate kangaroo care and promote bonding early in the first few weeks of life.
Complimentary and alternative therapies are growing in popularity and are being used more frequently in patients with a cancer diagnosis. The purpose of this literature review was to find identify the characteristics of cancer patients that use complimentary and alternative therapies. The literature showed that women and younger adults are more likely to use CAM therapies more often than their male and elder counterparts. The literature also stated that herbal therapy is the most commonly used form of CAM therapy.
Pain is very real phenomenon and is considered the fifth vital sign in many health institutions. Pain is the most frequent reason a patient seeks medical help. Unfortunately, a patient’s expression of pain is not always perceived as valid by healthcare providers. Patients with chronic non-cancer pain are often prescribed opioid analgesic medications for pain management, but their need for pain control is often misunderstood. Pain control in these individuals is imperative for participating in activities of daily living with a reasonable level of comfort. Administration of physician-prescribed opioid pain medication to inpatients is a nursing role. In some cases, nurses debate the validity of a patient’s pain and may delay or omit pain medication administration if they believe the patient is drug seeking. A variety of factors, including the patient’s lifestyle, sex, and medical diagnosis, may affect the nurses’ decisions to administer or withhold pain medication. In addition, the presence, absence, or degree of non-verbal pain cues may affect the nurses’ decisions.
Breast cancer is a prevalent disease affecting one in every eight women. Treatment for breast cancer can cause overwhelming fatigue that persists long after treatment is completed. Exercise aids in the prevention and treatment of other illnesses, such as heart disease and diabetes mellitus, and is positively correlated with mental and physical wellbeing. This literature review indicated that an exercise regimen does reduce fatigue in female breast cancer survivors and in women currently undergoing treatment of breast cancer. Quality of life and psychological functioning were also improved. Nurses should encourage breast cancer patients to participate in an exercise program to reduce fatigue and improve quality of life.
Treatment for acute lymphoctic leukemia (ALL) is very intensive. Treatment includes a combination of chemotherapy, therapy for secondary infections, hyperuricemia, irradiation, and intrathecal methotrexate. ALL may affect the central nervous in those diagnosed with the disease. In situations where the central nervous system is involved, cranial radiation may be included in the treatment regimen. Research shows that there are cognitive, sensory, memory, and psychosocial deficits in children who have been treated with cranial radiation. Leukemia is the term used to describe malignant disorders that affect the blood and blood products of the body. ALL is the most common form of leukemia in young children. This malignant disease causes a large number of immature white blood cells from the lymphoid lineage to accumulate in the bone marrow. These immature white blood cells are also known as lymphoblasts. This particular form of cancer can affect the blood, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other organs. ALL accounts for 23 percent of cancers diagnosed in children that are fifteen years of age and younger. Over three fourths of children diagnosed in the United States are between the ages of 2 and 5. This disease presents with flu-like symptoms and a sudden onset of bleeding. Diagnostic findings in children who have ALL include; low red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, and low, normal or high white blood cell count. The Philadelphia chromosome is present in 20 to 25 percent of patients diagnosed. The purpose of this research is to critically review the current literature regarding the effects of cranial radiation on childhood learning.
Across the United States the number of children being admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is on the rise, mostly due to advances in pediatric therapeutic techniques and a changing spectrum of pediatric disease. Both the children and their parents are at high risk for developing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) along with other negative emotional outcomes. Parents are at risk for problems such as depression and anxiety disorders. Admission to a PICU has the potential to expose both children and parents to an inordinate amount of emotional distress. Parents worry about their child’s survival and whether their child will be physically or mentally handicapped as a result of the admission. The stability of the child while in the PICU is an important factor in how the parents adjust to the situation and what kind of role they choose. Parents must be willing to accept that many decisions about their child’s state of health are made by people other than themselves. The purpose of this poster is to identify sources of stress for parents of critically ill children, defining how the various types of stress affect the entire family system and to describe nursing interventions shown to be effective in helping parents and their ill children cope with stress.
Improper hand hygiene is a primary contributor to hospital acquired infections in the United States. Though many studies have researched methods to ensure and maintain compliance with hand hygiene, no single method has been found to be effective. A variety of research studies were found on hand hygiene compliance. Many of these studies could document an initial increase in compliance rates with the addition of education, well-located sinks, or convenient hand sanitizer products. However, these rates dropped once the newness of a product wore off, or when there was no longer administrative reinforcement. In almost all studies there was a stated hand hygiene compliance rate of less than 50 percent. Hospital acquired infections increase the morbidity and mortality of patients and thus are a major problem with in hospitals today. Nurses are the 24 hour caregivers and should take the lead in infection control. Nurses should police themselves and other healthcare professionals to ensure the safety of their patients.
Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) claims more lives in the United States every year than lung cancer, breast cancer, and AIDS combined. According to the American Heart Association the number of lives claimed yearly by SCA is approximately 335,000. Since the completion of the Genome Project in 2003, information on hereditary predispositions and genetic testing related to SCA. Nurses are in a position to guide and educate families in appropriate care and interventions related to SCA. Ideally, nurses should promote genetic health education and awareness to identify at-risk behaviors and inherited conditions. This presentation includes relevant information from the Genome project, including diagnostic testing, treatment, and nursing interventions related to education of families at risk for SCA.
Patients’ are changing their conventional healthcare views in order to integrate their approach for personal wellness. Having an organic rich diet along with choosing alternative healthcare practices has increased among patient populations. Nurses and other healthcare providers should become aware of helping patients transition from an unhealthy life style to one that includes improved quality of life. A diet containing organic foods, combined with alternative healthcare practices, such as chiropractics or acupuncture has been shown to improve patient quality of life. Overall, research shows that organically grown foods contain fewer pesticide residues than conventional food products. Patients who use alternative and conventional healthcare practices have improved their quality of life, such as decreased pain with cancer or discomfort with chronic headaches.
Asthma, a chronic respiratory problem prevalent in the pediatric population, is considered an epidemic in the United States. It is a major cause of repeated hospitalizations due to unmanaged care of the disease. To help prevent return hospitalizations, educational interventions on disease management may improve patient health outcomes. The purpose of this poster presentation is to review the literature on asthma education and return hospitalizations to determine whether educational interventions improve disease management and lessen repeat primary healthcare inpatient stays. The overwhelming majority of research recognizes that education, especially an intensive, individualized program, can help improve a pediatric patient’s health outcome and lessen hospital admissions. Thus, it is necessary for healthcare providers to offer individualized asthma education during each inpatient hospitalization.
Newborn infants in the NICU receive an average of 14 painful procedures per day during the first two weeks of life. Nurses in the NICU struggle to decrease pain experienced by neonates because it is difficult to detect the amount of pain being experienced. Non-pharmacological ways to decrease pain are preferred for newborns due to the harmful effects of narcotics. The purpose of this research was to determine the types of non-pharmacological methods that can be used in the NICUs to decrease the pain experienced by neonates. Best nursing practice recommendations included non-pharmacological ways to decrease pain are sucrose dipped pacifiers, facilitated tucking, kangaroo care and mother’s voice during the procedure. For example, a pacifier dipped in liquid sucrose with the use of facilitated sucking decreases the pain being experienced by neonates. Sucrose and facilitated sucking decreases acute pain while also having a positive effect on the other systems of the body. More research is being conducted on the most effective way to decrease pain in the NICU.
Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension (PPHN) can affect two to six live births per 1000 of term or post-term infants. The mortality rate of those newborns is about ten percent. The need to institute corrective treatment in a timely manner is essential. The research literature strongly supports the use of nitric oxide. The information gained from this literature review showed that nitric oxide is the treatment of choice for term or post-term infants with PPHN. Research also supports the need for further education of healthcare personnel (i.e., physicians and nurses) caring for these infants.
Each year thousands of women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Although new medical advances are increasing survival odds, the cure remains unknown. Lifestyle modification is one development that is emerging as an effective way to decrease breast cancer occurrence. This literature review provides research evidence that demonstrates how obesity and body type correlate with breast cancer survival in post-menopausal women. Research articles regarding the correlation between body mass index and weight gain and the incidence and survivability of breast cancer were examined. Analysis of these research findings indicates a direct correlation between peri- and post-menopausal obesity and weight gain and post-menopausal breast cancer incidence and survival. Maintenance of a healthy weight provides a non-pharmacologic, cost-effective means to decrease breast cancer occurrence and improve overall health. Nurses as holistic providers should educate women about lifestyle risks that affect current and future health.
The increased demand for the expertise of registered nurses along with technological advances in the healthcare setting creates a bright and exciting future in the field of nursing. Despite these advancements, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of deaths due to nursing mistakes such as medication errors. This resulted in a wake up call to healthcare leaders. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), created a clinical nurse leader role (CNL) to provide health promotion and risk reduction services for diverse populations. The clinical nurse leader provides leadership across all settings in an effective manner. The new role of the CNL can reduce nurse related errors and result in cost efficient care. Despite the successful outcomes, many nursing professionals believe that the CNL role provides no clear differences from what good and experienced nurses already do. The purpose of this research is to examine the contributions of the first master’s level role to be added to the profession of nursing in more than 35 years, the clinical nurse leader (CNL) and identify the obstacles that they must overcome to be fully integrated into the profession of nursing.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a potentially fatal autosomal recessive disease that manifests itself in multiple body systems. It causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through excessive mucus production and often results in frequent lung infections, osteoporosis, and a decreased availability of pancreatic enzymes. It is time consuming and requires a long-term commitment to treatments and medications by the patient which can be highly stressful, sometimes resulting in noncompliance. The purpose of this poster presentation is to identify the positive relationship between nursing intervention, alternative treatments, and patient compliance. It was discovered that there is a direct connection between nursing assisted interventions and CF patient outcomes. When assisted, patients seem to have more energy and are more willing to continue their selected regimen. Best nursing practice recommendations include educating nurses on the importance of understanding the immense contribution that could be made in assisting these clients with treatments, nutrition, and medication administration. Further research is being continued on this topic to investigate better alternatives for increasing positive outcomes in CF patients.
Leishmaniasis disease is a parasitic disease transmitted by a sand fly bite. As the sand fly bites the host, the parasite is injected into the skin and infects the body and can damage vital organs and cause skin lesions. Currently, this is not a problem in the United States, although some cases have been found in Texas, but is a problem in places such as Costa Rica and the Middle East. We care about this parasitic disease because the World Health Organization considers it to be one of the most serious infectious diseases. Considering all the world travel and the military forces in the Middle East, the parasitic disease is being brought into the United States for treatment. The problem is that the disease is hyperendemic and is an incredible health burden worldwide. In some countries, such as Costa Rica, where people do not have access to healthcare, Leishmaniasis is a debilitating or lethal disease. The purpose of this project is to inform people of Leishmaniasis disease and to make people aware of the rising concerns for this worldwide parasitic disease and how it affects underprivileged families in areas such as Costa Rica. Healthcare and treatment in Costa Rica are compared to treatment options offered in the United States. Along with the comparison of healthcare options, cost of treatment is analyzed.
Hospice patients represent one of the largest patient populations suffering from consistent pain, and at the same time researchers continue to work on finding the most effective pharmacological and non-pharmacological ways to reduce their pain. The literature review addresses the latest and most efficient pharmacological and non pharmacological ways to reduce pain in hospice patients. Morphine, fentanyl and lidocaine were the most effective pharmacological ways to reduce pain. Non-pharmacological methods of relieving pain included massage, music therapy and guided imagery. This poster will present the many effective medications and complementary therapies that can be implemented by nurses to reduce pain and increase comfort in patient’s facing life limiting illnesses.
Hematology and oncology patients frequently receive bone marrow transplants (BMT), or hematopoetic stem cell transplants (HSCT), most commonly to treat diseases of the blood, bone marrow and some types of cancer. In 2007, an estimated 20,000 people underwent HSCT in hopes of treating malignant, and non-malignant, life threatening diseases (Riddell & Appelbaum, 2007). Although HSCT can increase the length and quality of life for some patients, it can also create serious and even fatal complications. One serious, potentially fatal, and common complication is the development of Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD). Nurses play an important role in early detection of signs and symptoms of GVHD as it is a very painful and taxing disease to experience, requiring astute and compassionate nursing care. The purpose of this poster is to raise awareness of the complications associated with HSCT, and how to detect serious side effects in hopes of early intervention.
Music therapy is a growing field in complementary and alternative medicine. Recently, the use of music therapy has grown considerably in the pediatric population. One hypothesis is that music, as a form of distraction, decreases pain and anxiety in this population. The research literature describes the positive effect of music therapy during painful procedures such as placing an intravenous catheter, venipunctures, heelsticks, dressing changes, and medication administration. These research studies indicate that music therapy may be a cost-effective and risk-free alternative to pharmacological pain control and sedation. Nurses should be aware of the soothing effects of appropriate music in the pediatric population. Music is a distracting technique that reduces pain and anxiety. Nurses can utilize music independently, encourage parental involvement through music, or consult a music therapist for children who require pharmacologic control of pain and anxiety.
During the post operative period there are several complications that can arise and pose a major threat to patient recovery. One potentially life-threatening complication is the formation of a venous thromboembolism (VTE). A venous thromboembolism is a mobile blood clot in a patient’s vascular system. Venous thromboembolism is a broad category that includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), which are the most common causes of preventable hospital death. Over 150,000 patients are diagnosed with VTEs each year. Nearly one tenth of these patients die from this condition before they are discharged. Without prophylaxis, fatal VTEs occur in about a third of hospitalized patients following general surgery. Therefore, prophylaxis against VTEs is a key factor in improving patient outcomes. Many healthcare systems have incorporated the use of sequential compression devices (SCDs) and or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) to aide in the prevention of VTEs. Even though SCDs and LMWH are used widely in hospitals, many healthcare workers are uncertain as to which one of these prophylactic measures is most effective in the prevention of VTEs. The purpose of this research project is to compare low molecular weight heparin with sequential compression devices and draw conclusions as to their effectiveness.
A large problem plaguing the medical system and overall population is type 2 diabetes mellitus. It seems that in today's world, most things in life affect this disease in a negative way; however, recent research has demonstrated that caffeine might have a protective effect against diabetes risk. Many studies found that regular caffeine consumption played a positive role in preventing or lowering one's risk for attaining type 2 diabetes mellitus. The reviewed research had much room for improvement, and one of the most important findings was that it might not be caffeine that is protective but some other substance in coffee. Through these results, nurses and other healthcare providers might be able to assist patients who are at an increased risk.
The purpose of this research study is to explore the effects of gentle human touch on preterm-low birth weight infants. This technique was initiated in underdeveloped nations to prevent pathogen transmission and has since been studied in Europe to encourage infant-parent bonding. The purpose of this research study is to discern the positive outcomes of gentle human touch and determine its benefit in the usual care of preterm and low birth weigh neonates. Research examined the physiological and behavioral effects of gentle human touch on preterm and low birth weight infants. The results provided evidence that gentle human touch positively affects preterm and low birth weigh infants through improved psychological and behavioral states, increased maturation, increased sleep time, and quicker growth and development. Nurses can safely encourage the use of this natural and economically favorable therapy, to positively affect the fragile lives of at risk neonates.
Non-pharmacologic treatment and intervention, or complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), is an evolving methodology used in pediatric oncology in the United States. According to the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), “complementary and alternative medicine is a group of diverse medical and healthcare systems, practices and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine” (NCCAM, 2007). The purpose of this poster is to explore the use of non-pharmacologic therapies or complementary and alternative medicine in pediatric oncology in the literature. This poster examines the nursing implications associated with caring for a pediatric oncology patient who chooses to participate in CAM therapy as well as how the nurse may participate in CAM.
Diabetic children and adolescents require parental guidance, as well as continual education, for better outcomes and adherence to the diabetic treatment regimen. Many children and adolescents have a common desire to fit in with peers and are easily influenced in these age groups. Since this is a very influential time, they need additional guidance and encouragement from their parent/guardian to adhere to their specific diabetic treatment plan. If they do not comply with their specific treatment regimen, it could result in high blood glucose levels. Having uncontrolled blood glucose levels can cause potential damage to the kidneys, eyes, nerves and blood vessels. If they are unable to manage their disease as children and adolescents, they could potentially have more serious co-morbidities as an adult. Research indicates that children needed additional parental guidance to maintain glucose levels in a therapeutic range. Both parents and children reported the need for continuing their education in regards to diet and measuring portions.
Many patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have underlying psychological and psychosocial issues that are sometimes overlooked. Further, patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses such as CF may also concurrently experience varying degrees of clinical depression. The purpose of this presentation is to review and synthesize the literature regarding the underlying psychological and psychosocial issues of patients with CF. From these reviews, it was concluded that adolescent and adult patients with CF have more psychological and psychosocial issues than children. This may be due to the differences in the severity of the disorder or knowledge of their disease, the amount of time that they have had the disease or other stressors. Best nursing practice recommendations would include focusing on medication regimens and compliance of the patient, evaluating the patient’s coping skills, and providing the patient with support. Patients with CF have underlying psychological and psychosocial issues that need to be recognized and managed properly.
The purpose of this project is to examine the effect Magnet Recognition has on the nursing profession and healthcare. Healthcare facilities were having trouble hiring and keeping nurses because everyone was competing for them due to nursing shortage. Research in the 1980s developed a plan to improve this problem. In 1993, the Magnet Recognition Program for excellence in Nursing Services was created by the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), an independent subsidiary of the American Nurses Association (ANA). Magnet Recognition Program for excellence in Nursing Services is the highest level of recognition that the ANCC offers to healthcare organizations that employ nurses. In order to earn this recognition, an organization must meet 14 different elements, which are referred to as the Forces of Magnetism and include nursing leadership, organizational structure, quality of care and the image of nursing. An organization must apply and meet all of the criteria to achieve Magnet Status, and reapply every four years to maintain the status.
There is a high prevalence of substance use in bipolar disorder patients. Research studies showed bipolar patients with lifetime substance abuse have with more frequent hospitalizations, poorer outcomes, and inadequate coping skills. This shows the importance of early diagnosis and improved treatment for both bipolar disorder and substance abuse. Improved treatment and interventions may help decrease the severity of bipolar disorders. More clinicians with the appropriate training are needed to recognize this problem and help these individuals. In the future, there needs to be a greater focus on this disabling co-morbidity, and more research needs to be done on how to help with this problem.
The benefits of breastfeeding are widely known across the United States, but many women chose not to breastfeed exclusively, or breastfeed for only a short duration of time after delivery. This poster investigates various barriers to breastfeeding and specific nursing interventions that can be used during the hospital stay and after discharge that increase the likelihood of mothers extending the duration of breastfeeding. Nurses are the first people that new mothers and babies interact with in the hospital. As such, nurses are the healthcare professionals who are in the best position to promote the benefits of breastfeeding, educate families on the importance of extended breastfeeding duration, and teach or reinforce best-practice breastfeeding techniques. The most effective method of promoting extended breastfeeding is to educate new mothers and families regarding the benefits and barriers to breastfeeding and to assure that the new mothers are comfortable with proper breastfeeding techniques before mothers and babies leave the hospital.
Chronic illnesses are difficult to manage in the acute care setting. Clients are at risk for negative effects from medication without relief from pain and anxiety. Medications can cause respiratory depression, and drowsiness. The purpose of this poster presentation is to review the positive effects of Therapeutic Touch for chronic pain, anxiety, or dementia associated with chronic illnesses. Researchers used double blind studies and additional methods to interpret the effect of Touch Therapy when added to medical treatment for chronic pain and anxiety. The researchers concluded that during clinical trials clients reported an increase in their overall treatment experience. Therapeutic Touch is an effective treatment that nurses can utilize to improve quality of life for their clients. Researchers feel that more studies must be completed to make a definitive statement that Therapeutic Touch does improve these symptoms. Nurses should be trained in Therapeutic Touch, as it is an effective and non-pharmacological method of treatment.
Breast cancer patients commonly experience fatigue and other debilitating symptoms of chemotherapy treatment that result in decreased quality of life. The purpose of this research was to investigate whether or not exercise is an effective treatment for fatigue associated with breast cancer and the impact it has on quality of life. A literature review was done. Randomized clinical controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohort, and case studies were searched to determine the effects of physical activity on cancer related fatigue and the impact on quality of life. Exercise consistently resulted in improved quality of life and decreased levels of fatigue in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Therefore, nurses should recommend and help to implement an exercise regimen for all capable breast cancer survivors. Further research exploring specific effective exercise routines and other positive effects of exercise in this population is needed.
The purpose of this project was to research the effectiveness of guided imagery for pain control. Helping patients manage their pain is one of the most important responsibilities of nurses. Many times giving people analgesics is not enough to control their pain. Other times patients do not want to be drowsy or experience the other side effects from analgesic medication. One therapy found to be effective in reducing pain is guided imagery. Through guided imagery patients can cope with pain caused by diseases such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia and cancer. Guided imagery was found to increase self-efficacy, improve functional status and increase satisfaction with rehabilitation programs for athletes. Nurses should learn guided imagery and offer this to their patients who would like better pain control.
Academic Detailing is gaining attention throughout the healthcare system. Pharmaceutical expenditures have increased in the United States over the past decade. Several studies have shown evidence that Academic Detailing has had a positive impact on prescribing practices from physicians. The program is being implemented for the purpose of preventing misuse and inappropriate prescribing behaviors by under educated physicians. Physicians tend to be readily influenced by pharmaceutical detailer's self-serving educational bias. This program has a field staff of physicians who are high volume prescribers that go to doctor’s offices and educate them through peer to peer data sharing. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate that Academic Detailing could reduce costs to consumer and educate physicians on evidence-based prescribing.
Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in childhood. The treatments for cancer and the disease make children vulnerable to acquiring infections while in the hospital. Hospitals have infection protocols in place, but their effectiveness is questionable. The purpose of this poster presentation is to explore the best practices available to prevent infections in this vulnerable population. Three themes that became evident from the review of the literature were: the use of environment, hand washing techniques, and low bacterial diet to prevent or control infection. The findings revealed that many of the techniques used in hospitals are outdated with little evidence to back them up. Best practices include washing hands before and after contact with each patient, using universal precautions, modifying or getting rid of the low bacterial diet, setting up patient rooms differently, and conducting much more research.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital heart defect responsible for 25% of all infant deaths in the first month of life. HLHS is a cyanotic defect where the fetal heart develops with a hypoplastic or non-existent left ventricle, mitral valve, aortic arch, and sometimes ascending aorta. Because the left ventricle is the pump that propels blood to the body, this disease is fatal to 95% of the infants who do not receive surgery within the first month. After staged surgical repairs have been made, nurses must assess for: shock, blood clots, poor perfusion, impaired respiration, congestive heart failure, urine output, abnormal lab values, and adequate nutrition. In a study that compiled 139 infants who had the Stage I Norwood procedure between 1996 and September 2004, 95% of the infants survived to reach stage II and 88% of the infants survived the stage II procedure. Attentive nursing care has shown an improvement on postoperative survival. Nursing interventions improve survival rates and identify problems occurring pre- and post-procedure.
According to American Diabetes Association, 20.8 million people in the US, or 7% of the population, have diabetes. The purpose of this research literature review was to evaluate evidence of the effects of nurse-directed education/teaching of diabetes self-management on adults with type-2 diabetes. This knowledge is critical for nurses working with type-2 diabetes patients to get improved outcomes. The literature review showed that patients with diabetes could benefit from nurse-directed education regarding self-care and disease management. The educational programs should include diet, exercise, weight and blood pressure maintenance within normal range, blood sugar monitoring, foot care, follow-up visits with primary care physicians, and diabetes medications. The educational programs should be combination of one-on-one appointments and group interventions with close follow-up provided on regular basis. These findings support the need for nurses to accurately educate patients with type-2 diabetes about diabetes self-management.
The purpose of this project was to become more aware of the effects of uncontrolled hypertension on the body as well as to learn ways to manage hypertension pharmacologically or non-pharmacologically. Heart disease is leading cause of death world-wide. Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors contributing to heart disease. Effectively controlling hypertension can greatly reduce the risk for heart disease Researchers who have conducted clinical trials as well as using surveys have found that the lowering of blood pressure significantly decreases the risk of stroke, congestive heart failure and coronary artery disease. Some non-pharmacologic ways to lower blood pressure are following the DASH diet, regular exercise, weight loss, moderate alcohol use, and smoking cessation. Some on the more common drugs prescribed as anti-hypertensive are beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, ace-inhibitors, and diuretics. Education is one of the most important factors controlling hypertension. People need to learn and understand how uncontrolled hypertension can affect ones health. The more people know and understand the more they will do to change their habits.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) leads the nation with the greatest number of mortalities. As the public becomes more aware and educated of the harmful effects of trans and saturated fatty acids on the cardiovascular system, increased research and dietary modifications are being made. A literature review demonstrated essential clinical evidence for cardiovascular disease treatment, including dietary therapy. The introduction of polyunsaturated fatty acids provided electrical stabilization, enhanced lipid profiles, decreased progression of CHD, and decreased risk of sudden cardiac death. A decrease in blood pressure, heart rate, frequency of arrhythmias, and proinflammatory markers were also acknowledged. The nurse's role to advocate, educate, and support patients can be greatly enhanced with the beneficial knowledge gained from this literature review. It is the nurse’s role to assess and analyze the patient's lifestyle and understanding of disease prevention, and to be aware of different cardioprotective strategies, to properly educate all patients.
Research conducted in the United States and abroad regarding cancer pain management is prevalent. Despite decades of research in this area, evidence persists that pain is a major health concern among cancer patients and their families. The purpose of this poster presentation is to define barriers to adequate pain assessment in order to improve pain management. Several barriers prevent optimal pain management, including lack of knowledge about pain among nurses and patients. Patients and their families have preconceived fears of becoming addicted to pain medication or of anticipated side effects. Also, some cultures do not readily admit to experiencing pain because they were taught not to. Best nursing practice recommendations include educating nurses regarding how pain experienced by the patient can interfere with adequate management of pain and proper pain assessments and how to integrate complementary or alternative therapies.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are more prone to occur in females then males. Researchers have found that female athletes have a four to six fold relative greater risk of ACL injuries in comparison to male athletes when playing similar sports, i.e. basketball, soccer, handball, and gymnastics. The purpose of this project is to find the reasons why females are at higher risk of ACL injury then males. Research concerning this topic is vital due to the controversial reasoning behind why females are at higher risk, the vast number injuries each year and the lofty healthcare cost of injury repair. Research focused on the intent to find a difference between male and female lower extremity muscle activity, a difference between at risk females in hormone levels, or preventative measures that can be anticipated to decrease injury. Many researchers believe that the hormonal milieu during the menstrual cycle increases the muscle laxity of the knee. Other authors conclude that females are at higher risk due to their quadriceps dominant lower extremities. Some feel that if neuromuscular training was completed by female athletes, the stability in the knee would increase, thus lowering their risk of ACL injury. Taken as a whole, if research is not done to identify the reasoning behind the female ACL injury and preventative measures are not found, the number of injuries will keep rising due to the increasing competitiveness in sports today.
As the American health insurance crisis continues, the problem of providing healthcare to the homeless population becomes a greater concern. Some homeless do have government provided healthcare benefits; however, studies show that most homeless Americans are not seeking healthcare even when it is desperately needed. A review of literature has identified many barriers for the homeless population in accessing healthcare. These barriers include transportation needs, time, and wellbeing, as well as knowing of where to go, concern about judgment, and need for other services. A stronger push for community health outreach programs is needed to solve the crisis the homeless face when considering medical care. Accordingly, programs that exist need to adjust their procedures to meet the complicated needs of the homeless in America.
Necrotizing enterocolitis is a disease the affects the gastrointestinal system in premature infants. The cause is unclear. There are many nursing actions that are involved in this diagnosis. There is a need to closely monitor the disease process and to anticipate complications should they arise. Within each complication are many nursing interventions. Nursing actions are present in the determination of complications, related to infant and parent comfort. Treatments that require nursing participation include non-surgical, surgical, and postoperative care. This poster identifies the nursing interventions entailed in the phases of the disease.
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), or genital herpes, is a virus that infects approximately 22% of adult Americans. Bearing physical, psychological, and social effects on those who acquire it, HSV-2 can pose more severe risk for immuno-compromised patients. It is estimated that one in every four adult American women has genital herpes. While there is no medicine that completely eradicates the herpes virus, an investigational vaccine is being developed to help stop transmission of genital herpes. The vaccine is being tested and is not yet approved for sale by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This vaccine does not contain live virus and cannot cause herpes infection. It has passed preliminary testing for safety and effectiveness and is now in its final phase of clinical trials. This clinical trial, the Herpevac Trial for Women, is testing the vaccine only on women who have never been infected with either Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 or 2. HSV1 is the virus that causes cold sores, and HSV2 is the virus that causes genital herpes. The trial is sponsored by both the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals. It is currently being conducted at more than 40 trial sites in the United States and Canada. The study is comprised of approximately 7,550 women, who are randomly assigned to receive either the herpes vaccine or an investigational hepatitis A vaccine. Each woman who participates receives three doses of either vaccine within the first six months of the trial and is followed for a total of 20 months through periodic clinic visits and contacts. This project evaluates all phases of the study and explores what the research holds for the future of herpes prevention.
The 1973 Supreme Court Case, Roe v. Wade legalized abortion. This decision changed nursing care of pregnant women. Women now have a choice to terminate an unwanted pregnancy. Ohio Law requires that the potential physical and emotional risks of abortion be reviewed prior to abortion in order to ensure informed consent. The risks discussed include: infection, incomplete abortion, perforation of the uterus and emotional distress. Though this information may detail the immediate risks associated with the procedure, there may be long-term and untold risks that are not discussed. The research literature suggests an association between abortion and ectopic pregnancy, low birth weight, negative psychological effects, pre-term birth, pre-eclampsia, and breast cancer. Though not conclusive, these findings should be discussed in order to provide informed consent. Nurses, as patient advocates and holistic providers, should ensure that women are well informed.
The purpose of this poster presentation was to determine the effects that diet modifications, stress reduction, and weight loss have on an individual’s blood pressure (BP). Research literature about diet modifications, stress reduction, and weight loss as related to hypertension was reviewed. Weight loss through a calorie-restricted diet along with a 1,500- 2,300 mg sodium dietary intake DASH diet for at least five days is an effective way to reduce an individual’s BP. Dietary supplements such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium can reduce BP in some individuals. Stress reduction techniques like progressive muscle relaxation and transcendental mediation decrease BP. Best nursing practice recommendations include teaching patients to use a combination of BP lowing techniques to have the best personal health outcomes.
Epidurals are very common in the United States for relieving the pain of childbirth. The side effects occurring from epidural anesthesia not only affect the mother, but they also affect the neonate along with the mother infant bond. Research literature reviewed depicts the common and different side effects that can occur when receiving epidural anesthesia during labor. Overall, use of epidural anesthesia resulted in an increased incidence of instrumental delivery, increased time during the second stage of labor, and an increased need for a caesarean section.
The intent of this presentation is to present a poster on the importance of Gardisil and the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). By educating everyone about the HPV vaccine we can bring awareness and risk factors of cervical cancer to the campus population. Young women are at risk of developing cervical cancer from the HPV. There has been research to support the vaccine in the prevention of cervical cancer. If a young woman chooses to become vaccinated with Gardisil, she significantly reduces her chances of cervical cancer. The main objective for this presentation is to bring about awareness of the HPV vaccine and present the research behind the vaccine. By understanding HPV and the vaccine, women can make an informed decision on whether to become vaccinated or not. Statistics about the prevalence of cervical cancer, the research supporting the vaccine, Gardisil, and the nursing implications surrounding the vaccine are presented.
Kangaroo Care is a form of skin to skin contact in which the mother places the infant, who is only wearing a diaper, in between her breasts. This resembles a kangaroo like pouch for the infant to nestle in. Studies demonstrated the beneficial effects kangaroo care has on the health of the preterm infant. Kangaroo care is also beneficial for the mother, by providing a way to bond with her infant and build confidence. Lactation and breast feeding times are longer and better with infants who experience kangaroo care compared to those who receive traditional care. Kangaroo care provides analgesic effects for infants, as well as regulates sleep wake cycles better. Overall kangaroo care is a great way to help ease the mother into motherhood, and help improve the care for preterm infants. Kangaroo care should be encouraged to all mothers with infants in special care nursery, and proper education and information should be provided.
The complicated regimen of diabetes care can be difficult to manage during the rapid growth and development of adolescents. The purpose of this literature review is to examine adherence to such a regimen in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Significant gains in compliance would promote the health of the adolescent. Interventions tested within the literature were maternal/child involvement, clinic/nurse involvement, and home-based including psychological therapy in the home-setting. The data collection methods used were telephone interviews and counseling, questionnaires, family/child interviews, and direct observance. The research results imply that because diabetes care for adolescents is complex, it requires great family cohesion, and often home-based interventions to help the adolescent adhere to their diabetic regimen. Nurses must realize that it takes a good family support system, and a true understanding of a young adolescent’s maturing body and mind to establish adherence to a complicated regimen. Nurses should thus promote a more comprehensive approach to the care of the diabetic adolescent.
The effects of induced coma on traumatic brain injury patients were investigated in this work. Types of medications used for sedation, length of sedation, and the effectiveness of induced coma were examined in several studies involving patients with varying degrees of brain injury. An induced coma for traumatic brain injury patients is believed to reduce intracranial pressure as well as slow metabolism to permit proper healing. Induced coma is beneficial for proper healing for traumatic brain injury patients but comes with some adverse effects. These adverse effects differ with the medication used to sedate the patient. Remifentanil is effective and the healthcare provider’s choice in sedation medications due to its decreased adverse effects and short half life.
In the United States each year, more than 13,000 children are diagnosed with type I diabetes. It is a serious illness. This poster presents information about the chronic condition and the actions and nursing interventions that help children through the course of the condition. Most children with diabetes can manage their condition and attend school. However, this makes the role of the school nurse very important in managing the wellbeing of those students. Managing incidences of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, understanding insulin administration schedules and needs, and understanding the research about the condition, are all part of the nurse’s job. Also, once thought to be a disease of the older and overweight adult population, the incidence of type II diabetes is on the rise in adolescents. Some clinics have reported that one-third to one-half of all new cases of childhood diabetes are classified as type II. This has changed the role of the school nurse.
Maintaining effective hand hygiene continues to be a challenge for most healthcare settings, which can have unfavorable consequences for both patients and nurses. Hand hygiene plays a key role in the prevention of nosocomial infections. The purpose of this poster presentation is to review the literature regarding different forms of hand hygiene and the role they play in the prevention of infection among patients in the hospital. Research articles were analyzed regarding interventions used to reduce the spread of infections in the hospital. The key way to stop the spread is to use some form of hand hygiene. This could include the use of an antiseptic detergent or an alcohol based sanitizer. Other best nursing practice recommendations include wearing protective clothing such as gowns and gloves and teaching nurses and families how they can help reduce the spread of infection. For example, intensive care units used illustrations or a video to teach parents the correct hand washing technique. However, there is still a need to provide more education to nurses and families on the importance of hand hygiene, to help reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections in the hospital.
Labor can be a painful and stressful time for the woman and her partner. From the latent phases through the transitional the woman experience an increasing amount of pain and anxiety. Supplemental use of alternative therapies such as massage, acupressure, acupuncture, and music are attractive options because they are non-pharmacologic and cost effective. A common trend among research studies was that the experimental groups that received the alternative therapies, when compared with the control groups, showed a significant decrease in pain perception as well as anxiety throughout labor. One study even found a decrease in the length of labor. The attitudes of the nurses and physicians can influence alternative therapies. Nursing practice can benefit from alternative therapies because they can be easily implemented in the hospital setting and pose no risk to the patients receiving them. Alternative therapies such as massage, acupressure, acupuncture, and music can also reduce patient’s anxiety and stress levels.
Delirium is an acute decline in attention and cognition. It is a common, life threatening, and potentially preventable clinical syndrome. The literature indicates that delirium occurs in 70 to 87 percent of patients in intensive care units (ICU). Delirium is associated with poor cognitive outcome, increased hospital length of stay, and increased costs. The diagnosis of delirium is primarily clinical and based on careful bedside observation. It is therefore crucial for nurses to be knowledgeable regarding the signs and symptoms of delirium. Ultimately, the most effective strategy for reducing the frequency and complications of delirium is prevention. This poster addresses the tools used to identify delirium in the ICU patient in addition to the interventions that can be implemented to prevent the occurrence of delirium.
Today in the United States, the expanding diversity has forced healthcare professionals to consider cultural competence when caring for patients. The intent of this poster presentation is to inform healthcare professionals, specifically nurses, about the proper care of Hispanic and African American childbearing families who have chosen to breastfeed. A literature review identified the current beliefs and practices of these cultures, factors influencing minority breastfeeding decisions, and breastfeeding interventions that have been successful in the past. The conclusions that can be drawn from this information include the need to implement interventions that incorporate current minority breastfeeding practices, target at-risk populations with appropriate breastfeeding promotion interventions, and conduct further research to determine effective breastfeeding interventions.
In 2001, anthrax was used as a weapon by transmitting contaminated letters through the postal system. This caused 22 infections, and nearly half of those infected died. Anthrax is a top choice as a biological warfare agent. Anthrax is the Bacillus anthracis bacterium, which is a spore-forming, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium. This bacterium can be produced in large quantities using basic technologies. Spores that protect the bacterium and allow it remain dormant for many years. Spores also allow the bacterium to become airborne. The three types of anthrax infections are cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation. Cutaneous anthrax occurs when bacteria enter the body through an open wound in the skin during the handling of contaminated animal products. Gastrointestinal anthrax is obtained from consuming undercooked or raw contaminated meat. Inhalation anthrax occurs from inhaling anthrax spores. This type of anthrax is a major concern in biological warfare. The airborne capabilities allow the bacterium to be used against civilian populations, as was the case in 2001 through contaminated letters in the postal system. It also lends itself to use against the armed forces through missile attacks, bombs, or sprayers. Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed is a vaccine administered to protect against anthrax but it is currently not available to the general public. It is available to the U.S. armed forces and laboratory workers who are at risk for exposure. There has been some controversy surrounding the use of the anthrax vaccine. The purpose of this project is to draw conclusions about the worth of the vaccine by comparing values and complications experienced as a result of anthrax vaccination.
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